European Employment Laws

European Employment Laws

A comparative guide

The book reviews the evolution of labour law within the EU, analyses the distinct regional approaches to employment and welfare, and looks at the pressures for change within a further enlarged EU. The authors then provide a basic outline of employment law in each of the 28 member states, and in Turkey, Montenegro and Bosnia Herzegovina (all of whom are preparing for membership). It is intended for HR persons, lawyers looking for basic knowledge, policymakers & lawmakers elsewhere in EU, and EU bodies.

The book reviews the evolution of labour law within the EU, analyses the distinct regional approaches to employment and welfare, and looks at the pressures for change within a further enlarged EU. The authors then provide a basic outline of employment law in each of the 28 member states, and in Turkey, Montenegro and Bosnia Herzegovina (all of whom are preparing for membership).

In the six years since the second edition of this book was published in 2010 the economic consequences of the global financial crisis of 2008 onwards have forced many EU member states to revisit their labour laws, and attempt to make their labour markets more competitive while remaining in the EU framework. These changes have been incorporated into the third edition.

The book identifies those areas where the law is unified by the enactment of European Directives, and regional differences which are potential pitfalls for employers with workers in more than one EU state.

It is intended for HR persons, lawyers looking for basic knowledge, policymakers & lawmakers elsewhere in EU, and EU bodies.

About the authors: 
Stephen Hardy LLB PhD FRSA MCIArb FHEAcad, is Professor of Law and formerly a practising barrister specialising in employment law. He is also a Judge of the First-tier Tribunal (Social Entitlement Chamber).
Mark Butler LLB LLM PhD is a non-practising barrister and Lecturer in Law at Lancaster University. He is the author of Spiramus’s Equality and Anti-Discrimination Law (2016) and the Deputy General Editor of Sweet & Maxwell’s Encyclopaedia of Employment Law.

The book reviews the evolution of labour law within the EU, analyses the distinct regional approaches to employment and welfare, and looks at the pressures for change within a further enlarged EU. The authors then provide a basic outline of employment law in each of the 28 member states, and in Turkey, Montenegro and Bosnia Herzegovina (all of whom are preparing for membership). It is intended for HR persons, lawyers looking for basic knowledge, policymakers & lawmakers elsewhere in EU, and EU bodies.

Contents

 

Foreword to First Edition.. iii

About the authors. vi

Preface  vii

Contents. ix

Cases    xxi

PART 1: Posting Workers in the EU

Introduction.. 1

Enlargement towards EU27. 2

EU27 - mission accomplished?. 6

Fifty years on – the new challenges facing EU27. 10

Opportunities for EU28 and beyond.. 13

New Governance for an enlarged social EU 28. 16

Putting EU labour law into practice. 18

EU labour law... 19

Transnational employment: the mandatory rules on forum... 21

Which law applies? - Applicable law solutions. 28

PART 2: EU27 Employment Laws

1.      AUSTRIA.. 31

1.1.       Contracts of Employment 31

1.2.       Confidentiality/Non-competition/Restraint of Trade. 31

1.3.       Working Time. 32

1.4.       Pay. 34

1.5.       Deductions from Pay. 34

1.6.       Sick Pay. 34

1.7.       Notice Periods. 35

1.8.       Termination without Notice. 35

1.9.       Dismissals. 36

1.10.    Redundancy. 38

1.11.    Family Friendly Rights. 38

1.12.    Equal Treatment 39

1.13.    Employment Relations. 40

1.14.    Trade Unions. 43

1.15.    Works Agreement 44

1.16.    Collective Bargaining. 44

1.17.    Employment Disputes. 45

2.      BELGIUM... 47

2.1.       Contracts of Employment 47

2.2.       Terms and Conditions of Employment 47

2.3.       Varying Belgian Contracts of Employment 48

2.4.       Confidentiality/Non-competition/Restraint of Trade. 48

2.5.       Working Time. 49

2.6.       Pay. 49

2.7.       Deductions from Pay. 50

2.8.       Sick Pay. 50

2.9.       Social Welfare. 50

2.10.    Notice Periods. 51

2.11.    Dismissals. 51

2.12.    Redundancy. 51

2.13.    Family Friendly Rights. 52

2.14.    Equal Treatment 53

2.15.    Employment Relations. 53

2.16.    Employment Disputes. 54

3.      BULGARIA.. 57

3.1.       Contract of Employment 57

3.2.       Varying Bulgarian Contracts of Employment 57

3.3.       Confidentiality/Non-competition/Restraint of Trade. 58

3.4.       Working Time. 58

3.5.       Pay. 58

3.6.       Deductions from Pay. 59

3.7.       Sick Pay. 59

3.8.       Notice Periods. 59

3.9.       Dismissals. 59

3.10.    Redundancy. 60

3.11.    Family Friendly Rights. 61

3.12.    Equal Treatment 61

3.13.    Information and Consultation of Employees. 61

3.14.    Employment Disputes. 62

4.      CYPRUS. 63

4.1.       Contracts of Employment 63

4.2.       Varying Cypriot Contracts of Employment 63

4.3.       Working Time. 63

4.4.       Pay. 64

4.5.       Deductions from Pay. 64

4.6.       Sick Pay. 64

4.7.       Notice Periods. 64

4.8.       Dismissals. 64

4.9.       Redundancy. 64

4.10.    Family Friendly Rights. 65

4.10.1.     Maternity pay. 65

4.11.    Equal Treatment 66

4.12.    Employment Disputes. 66

5.      CZECH REPUBLIC.. 67

5.1.       Contract of Employment 67

5.2.       Varying Czech Contracts of Employment 67

5.3.       Working Time. 67

5.4.       Pay. 67

5.5.       Deductions from Pay. 67

5.6.       Sick pay. 68

5.7.       Notice Periods. 68

5.8.       Family Friendly Rights. 68

5.9.       Equal Treatment 68

5.10.    Information and Consultation Rights. 69

5.11.    Temporary Agency Workers. 69

5.12.    Fixed-term Workers. 69

6.      DENMARK.. 71

6.1.       Contracts of Employment 71

6.2.       Terms and Conditions of Employment 71

6.3.       Varying a Danish contract of Employment 71

6.4.       Confidentiality/Non-competition/Restraint of Trade. 71

6.5.       Working Time. 71

6.6.       Pay. 72

6.7.       Deductions from Pay. 72

6.8.       Sick Pay. 72

6.9.       Social Welfare. 72

6.10.    Notice Periods. 72

6.11.    Dismissals. 73

6.12.    Redundancy. 73

6.13.    Family Friendly Rights. 73

6.14.    Equal Treatment 73

6.15.    Employment Relations. 73

6.16.    Employment Disputes. 74

7.      ESTONIA.. 75

7.1.       Contracts of Employment 75

7.2.       Terms and Conditions of Employment 75

7.3.       Varying an Estonian Contract of Employment 75

7.4.       Working Time. 75

7.5.       Pay. 76

7.6.       Unemployment Benefit 76

7.7.       Notice Periods. 76

7.8.       Family Friendly Rights. 76

7.9.       Information and Consultation of Employees. 77

7.10.    Employment Disputes. 77

8.      FINLAND.. 79

8.1.       Contracts of Employment 79

8.2.       Varying Finnish Contracts of Employment 79

8.3.       Working Time. 79

8.4.       Pay. 79

8.5.       Deductions from Pay. 80

8.6.       Notice Periods. 80

8.7.       Dismissals. 80

8.8.       Redundancy. 81

8.9.       Family Friendly Rights. 83

8.10.    Equal Treatment 83

8.11.    Collective Agreements. 85

8.12.    Employee Participation.. 86

8.13.    Fixed-Term Contract 88

8.14.    Part-Time Work. 88

8.15.    Employment Disputes. 89

9.      FRANCE. 91

9.1.       Contracts of Employment 91

9.2.       Varying French Contracts of Employment 92

9.3.       Confidentiality/Non-competition/Restraint of Trade. 92

9.4.       Working Time. 92

9.5.       Pay. 93

9.6.       Deductions from Pay. 93

9.7.       Social Welfare. 94

9.8.       Notice Periods. 94

9.9.       Dismissals. 94

9.10.    Redundancy. 96

9.11.    Family Friendly Rights. 97

9.12.    Equal Treatment 97

9.13.    Employee Relations. 98

9.14.    Employment Disputes. 99

10.   GERMANY.. 101

10.1.    Contracts of Employment 101

10.2.    Terms and Conditions of employment 102

10.3.    Varying German Contracts of Employment 102

10.4.    Confidentiality/Non-competition/Restraint of Trade. 102

10.5.    Working Time. 103

10.6.    Pay. 103

10.7.    Social Welfare. 104

10.8.    Notice Periods. 104

10.9.    Dismissals. 104

10.10.  Family Friendly Rights. 106

10.11.  Equal Treatment 107

10.12.  Employee Relations. 107

10.13.  Works Council Law... 108

10.14.  General Changes in German Labour law... 109

10.15.  Part-time Work. 110

10.16.  Fixed-term Work. 111

10.17.  Employment Disputes. 111

11.   GREECE. 113

11.1.    Contract of Employment 113

11.2.    Certificate of Employment 113

11.3.    Confidentiality/Non-competition/Restraint of Trade. 113

11.4.    Working Time. 114

11.5.    Pay. 115

11.6.    Sick Pay. 115

11.7.    Notice Periods. 115

11.8.    Termination of the Contract of Employment 116

11.9.    Resignation.. 116

11.10.  Dismissals. 117

11.11.  Disciplining an Employee: Reprimand and Fine. 117

11.12.  Redundancy. 117

11.13.  Severance Pay. 118

11.14.  Family Friendly Rights. 119

11.15.  Equal Treatment 120

11.16.  Works Councils. 120

11.17.  Employment Disputes. 121

12.   HUNGARY.. 123

12.1.    Contracts of Employment 123

12.2.    Working Time. 123

12.3.    Pay. 123

12.4.    Sick Pay. 124

12.5.    Notice Periods. 125

12.6.    Family Friendly Rights. 125

12.7.    Information and Consultation Rights. 125

12.8.    Atypical Workers (Part-time and Fixed-term workers) 126

12.9.    Employment Disputes. 127

13.   IRELAND.. 129

13.1.    Contracts of Employment 129

13.2.    Terms and Conditions of Employment 129

13.3.    Confidentiality/Non-competition/Restraint of Trade. 130

13.4.    Working Time. 130

13.5.    Pay. 132

13.6.    Sick Pay. 132

13.7.    Social Welfare. 133

13.8.    Notice Periods. 133

13.9.    Dismissals. 134

13.10.  Redundancy. 135

13.11.  Family Friendly Rights. 135

13.12.  Equal Treatment 135

13.13.  Fixed-term Work. 136

13.14.  Employment Relations. 137

13.15.  Employment Disputes. 138

14.   ITALY.. 139

14.1.    Contracts of Employment 139

14.2.    Pay. 140

14.3.    Working Time. 140

14.4.    Time-off 141

14.5.    Social welfare. 141

14.6.    Notice Periods. 142

14.7.    Dismissals. 143

14.8.    Dirigenti – a special case. 144

14.9.    Redundancy. 144

14.10.  Family Friendly Rights. 145

14.11.  Equal Treatment 145

14.12.  Employment Relations. 146

14.13.  Employment Disputes. 146

15.   LATVIA.. 149

15.1.    The Labour Code. 149

15.2.    Contract of Employment 150

15.3.    Working Time. 150

15.4.    Pay. 151

15.5.    Sick Pay. 151

15.6.    Sickness and Welfare. 151

15.7.    Notice Periods. 152

15.8.    Family Friendly Rights. 152

15.9.    Employment Disputes. 153

16.   LITHUANIA.. 155

16.1.    The Employment Code. 155

16.2.    Employees and Employers. 155

16.3.    Contracts of Employment 155

16.4.    Illegal Work. 156

16.5.    Probationary Periods. 156

16.6.    Employment Contract 156

16.7.    Working Time. 157

16.8.    Limitation of Overtime Work. 158

16.9.    Public Holidays. 160

16.10.  Annual Leave. 160

16.11.  Other leave. 161

16.12.  Pay. 162

16.13.  Notice Periods. 162

16.14.  Restrictions on the Termination of an Employment Contract 163

16.15.  Guarantees to Pregnant Women and Employees Raising Children.. 164

16.16.  Guarantees to Worker Representatives. 164

16.17.  Termination of the Contract of Employment 164

16.18.  Severance Pay. 165

16.19.  Family Friendly Rights. 165

16.20.  Part-time Work. 166

16.21.  Seasonal Employment Contract 166

16.22.  Collective Labour Relations. 167

16.23.  Workplace Representation.. 167

16.24.  Regulatory Bodies. 167

16.25.  Employment Disputes. 168

16.26.  Limitation of Actions. 168

17.   LUXEMBOURG.. 169

17.1.    Contract of Employment 169

17.2.    Terms and Conditions of Employment 169

17.3.    Confidentiality /Non-competition /Restraint of Trade. 169

17.4.    Working Time. 169

17.5.    Pay. 170

17.6.    Sick pay. 170

17.7.    Social Welfare. 170

17.8.    Notice Periods. 170

17.9.    Dismissals. 170

17.10.  Redundancy. 171

17.11.  Family Friendly Rights. 172

17.12.  Equal Treatment 172

17.13.  Employment Relations. 172

17.14.  Employment Disputes. 174

18.   MALTA.. 175

18.1.    Contracts of Employment 175

18.2.    Pay. 176

18.3.    Sick Pay. 176

18.4.    Working Time. 177

18.5.    Notice Periods. 177

18.6.    Family Friendly Rights. 177

18.7.    Employment Disputes. 178

19.   NETHERLANDS. 179

19.1.    Contract of Employment 179

19.2.    Terms and Conditions of Employment 179

19.3.    Confidentiality/Non-competition/Restraint of Trade. 179

19.4.    Working Time. 180

19.5.    Pay. 180

19.6.    Sick Pay. 181

19.7.    Social Welfare. 181

19.8.    Notice Periods. 181

19.9.    Dismissals. 182

19.10.  Family Friendly Rights. 183

19.11.  Equal Treatment 183

19.12.  Employment Relations. 184

19.13.  Employment Disputes. 184

20.   POLAND.. 187

20.1.    Contracts of Employment 187

20.2.    Confidentiality/Non-competition/Restraint of Trade. 187

20.3.    Working Time. 187

20.4.    Time off 188

20.5.    Pay. 189

20.6.    Termination of the Contract of Employment 189

20.7.    Family Friendly Rights. 190

20.8.    Employment of Foreigners. 190

20.9.    Employment Relations. 191

20.10.  State Labour Inspectorate and State Sanitary Inspectorate. 191

21.   PORTUGAL. 193

21.1.    Employment Status. 194

21.2.    Contracts of Employment 194

21.3.    Working Time. 195

21.4.    Pay. 195

21.5.    Sick Pay. 196

21.6.    Dismissals. 196

21.7.    Redundancy. 196

21.8.    Family Friendly Rights. 196

21.9.    Equal Treatment 196

21.10.  Collective Labour Relations. 197

21.11.  Employment Disputes. 197

22.   ROMANIA.. 199

22.1.    Contracts of Employment 199

22.2.    Terms and Conditions of Employment 199

22.3.    Working Time. 199

22.4.    Pay. 199

22.5.    Dismissals. 200

22.6.    Family Friendly Rights. 201

22.7.    Employment Disputes. 202

23.   SLOVAK REPUBLIC.. 205

23.1.    Contract of Employment 205

23.2.    Varying a Slovakian Contract of Employment 205

23.3.    Working Time. 205

23.4.    Pay. 206

23.5.    Deductons from Pay. 206

23.6.    Family Friendly Rights. 206

23.7.    Employment Disputes. 206

24.   SLOVENIA.. 207

24.1.    Contract of Employment 207

24.2.    Varying a Slovenian Contract of Employment 208

24.3.    Working Time. 208

24.4.    Pay. 208

24.5.    Notice. 208

24.6.    Family-Friendly Rights. 209

24.7.    Employment Disputes. 210

25.   SPAIN.. 211

25.1.    Contracts of Employment 211

25.2.    Confidentiality/Non-competition/Restraint of Trade. 212

25.3.    Pay. 212

25.4.    Social welfare. 213

25.5.    Working Time. 213

25.6.    Time-off 214

25.7.    Notice Periods. 214

25.8.    Dismissals. 214

25.9.    Redundancy. 215

25.10.  Family Friendly Rights. 215

25.11.  Equal Treatment 216

25.12.  Employment Relations. 216

25.13.  Employment Disputes. 217

26.   SWEDEN.. 219

26.1.    The Employment Contract 219

26.2.    Terms and Conditions of Employment 219

26.3.    Varying Swedish contracts of employment 219

26.4.    Working Time. 219

26.5.    Pay. 220

26.6.    Deductions from Pay. 220

26.7.    Social Welfare. 220

26.8.    Notice Periods. 220

26.9.    Dismissals. 221

26.10.  Family Friendly Rights. 222

26.11.  Equal Treatment 222

26.12.  Employment Relations. 222

26.13.  Employment Disputes. 222

27.   UNITED KINGDOM... 223

27.1.    Categories of employment rights. 223

27.1.1.     Individual rights. 224

27.1.2.     Collective rights. 225

27.1.3.     Equality (Discrimination) 225

27.2.    Contract of Employment 226

27.3.    Collective Agreements. 226

27.4.    Express terms and reasonableness. 227

27.4.1.     Implied terms. 227

27.5.    Temporary and fixed-term employment 228

27.6.    Probationary/trial periods. 229

27.7.    Employee status and continuity. 229

27.7.1.     Employee status. 230

27.7.2.     Personal service companies (PSCs) and managed service companies (MSCs) 233

27.8.    Working Time Regulations. 233

27.9.    Discrimination Legislation.. 237

27.9.1.     Equality Act 2010. 237

27.10.  Legislation on equal pay. 241

27.10.1.       Genuine occupational qualifications. 241

27.10.2.       Sexual orientation. 243

27.10.3.       Religion and belief 244

27.10.4.       Age. 244

27.11.  Maternity Rights. 245

27.12.  Paternity leave. 246

27.13.  Adoption Leave. 247

27.13.1.       Statutory Adoption Pay. 248

27.14.  Maternity Leave. 249

27.14.1.       Statutory Maternity Pay. 249

27.14.2.       Maternity Allowance. 250

27.15.  Flexible Working. 251

27.16.  Fixed Term Work. 252

27.17.  Family friendly. 253

27.17.1.       Paternity. 253

27.17.2.       Adoption leave. 254

27.17.3.       Parental leave. 254

27.18.  Dismissal law in the UK.. 255

27.18.1.       Reasonableness. 255

27.19.  Notice period.. 256

27.20.  What may be a valid reason for dismissal?. 257

27.20.1.       UK unfair dismissal 257

27.20.2.       When is dismissal unquestionably unfair?. 258

27.20.3.       Dismissal in connection with illness. 259

27.20.4.       Dismissal on grounds of redundancy. 259

27.20.5.       Dismissal during an industrial dispute. 260

27.20.6.       Automatic unfair dismissal 260

27.21.  Minimum wage. 260

27.22.  Litigation in the UK – Employment Tribunals. 261

27.22.1.       The composition. 261

PART 3: Further EU Enlargement

28.   TURKEY.. 265

28.1.    TURKEY EMPLOYMENT LAWS. 265

28.2.    Contract of Employment 266

28.3.    Terms and Conditions of Employment 266

28.4.    Working Time. 267

28.5.    Pay. 267

28.6.    Social Welfare. 267

28.7.    Notice Periods. 267

28.8.    Dismissals. 268

28.9.    Redundancy. 269

28.10.  Labour Disputes. 269

29.   CROATIA.. 271

29.1.    Contracts of Employment 271

29.2.    Terms and Conditions of Employment 271

29.3.    Working Time. 272

29.4.    Pay. 273

29.5.    Notice Periods. 273

29.6.    Dismissals. 274

29.7.    Redundancy. 274

29.8.    Family Friendly Rights. 275

29.8.1.     Paid Leave. 275

29.8.2.     Maternity Leave. 275

29.8.3.     Short-time Working Hours for Parents. 276

29.8.4.     Transfer of Rights to the Father. 276

29.8.5.     Parental Leave. 276

29.8.6.     Adoption Leave. 276

29.9.    Equal Treatment 276

29.10.  Information and Consultation of Employees. 277

PART 4: EU Information Centre

KEY SOURCES: 281

INDEX.. 283

Index of European Union. 283

Index of individual countries. 285

Product Format
Paperback
Dimensions
234 x 156
Publication Date
8 Apr 2016
Number of Pages
370
ISBN
9781910151013
Edition
3
Product Format
PDF
Dimensions
234 x 156
Publication Date
24 Mar 2016
ISBN
9781910151020
Edition
3